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Po Beg (personal name Fu Pu) was the khatun (queen) and then hansha (queen mother) of the Second Turkic Khaganate in the early eighth century. Her father was Tonyukuk, an apa tarkan, a title equivalent to prime minister. She married Bilge Khagan (683 or 684-734) before 717, while he was still a tegin (prince).
In 734, Bilge was poisoned. Before dying, however, he accused Buyruk Chor, a high governor of the empire, who had previously been to China and had him executed. Bilge's sons succeeded him. After the death of his first son Yollıg Khagan (734-?), his other son Tengri Qaghan (?-741) was enthroned. Tengri was young and Po Beg acted like a queen regent. However, the real power was in the hands of two shads (local governors), one in the west and the other in the east. Po Beg tried to centralize the power and planned to execute the two governors. She had the governor in the west executed but Pan Kül Tigin, the governor in the east, became suspicious and revolted, killing Tengri Qaghan 742. Two years later, the empire was dissolved following a joint rebel of Uyghurs, Karluks and Basmyls. During the last days of the empire, Po Beg, together with her clan, took refuge in Tang China. Emperor Xuanzong of Tang greeted her and threw a banquet for her. She was given the title of princess, and was appointed the ruler of her people. According to the New Book of Tang, Xuanzong sent flour to her clan during the harvest season. According to Russian historian Lev Gumilyov (1912–1992), she saved her people but not her nation.
Turkish journalist Ahmet Akyol asserts that Buyruk Chor was not responsible for Bilge Khaghan’s death. Probably Po Beg poisoned her husband because Bilge Khagan had planned to sign a treaty of commerce with Tang China and, as was the custom, he would marry a Chinese princess after signing the treaty. Baumer claims that Po Beg usurped power and shared it with her lover. Liu Mao-Tsai suggested that Po Beg had Yollig poisoned and put the minor Tengri on the throne so that she could be regent and that she kept the death of Yollig secret from the Chinese which explains the variations in death dates.
Gumilev, L. N. (2002). Ahsen Batur, Ahsen, ed. Eski Türkler (in Turkish). İstanbul: Selenge Yayınları. ISBN 975-7856-39-8. OCLC 52822672. Taşağıl, Ahmet (2012). Göktürkler (in Turkish). Ankara: AKDTYK Yayınları. pp. 359–62. ISBN 978-975-16-2460-4. v t e Göktürks Turkic Khaganate Bumin Qaghan Issik Qaghan Muqan Qaghan Taspar Qaghan Ashina Anluo Ishbara Qaghan Bagha Qaghan Tulan Qaghan (Istämi) (Empress Ashina) (Apa Qaghan) (Tamgan) Western Turkic Khaganate Tardu Niri Qaghan Heshana Khan Sheguy Tong Yabghu Qaghan Külüg Sibir Irbis Bolun Cabgu Dulu Khan Ishbara Qaghan Yukuk Shad Irbis Seguy Hallig (Bagha Shad) (Böri Shad) Eastern Turkic Khaganate Yami Qaghan Shibi Qaghan Chulo Qaghan Illig Qaghan Qilibi Qaghan Chebi Qaghan Ashina Nishufu Ashina Funian (Ashina Jiesheshuai) Second Eastern Turkic Khaganate Ilterish Qaghan Qapaghan Qaghan Inel Khagan Bilge Khagan Yollıg Khagan Tengri Qaghan Kutluk Yabgu Khagan Irterish Qaghan Özmiş Khagan Kulun Beg (Kul Tigin) (Tonyukuk) (Po Beg) Western Turkic Protectorate Exiled House A Ashina Mishe Ashina Yuanqing Ashina Xian Ashina Zhen Exiled House B Ashina Buzhen Bugri qaghan (Ashina Qushraq) Ashina Huaidao Ashina Xin Turk culture Ashina clan Ashide clan Tengrism Asena Otukan Suyab Khagan Kurultai Yabgu Ishad Elteber Old Turkic language Old Turkic alphabet Orkhon inscriptions Orkhon Valley Turks in the Tang military Ülüş system Turk wars and treaties Göktürk civil war Battle of Bukhara Göktürk–Persian Wars First Second Third Tang Eastern Turk campaign Xueyantuo Tang Western Turk campaigns Conquest Battle of Bolchu Ili River Treaty